Monday, September 22, 2008

Jack the Ripper was a Jew

Jack the Ripper is an alias given to an unidentified serial killer[2] (or killers) active in the largely impoverished Whitechapel area and adjacent districts of London,England in the autumn of 1888. The name is taken from a letter sent to the London Central News Agency by someone claiming to be the murderer.

The victims were women allegedly earning income as prostitutes. The murders were perpetrated in public or semi-public places at night or in the early morning. The victim's throat was cut, after which the body was mutilated. Theories suggest the victims were first strangled in order to silence them, which also explained the reported lack of blood at the crime scenes. The removal of internal organs from three of the victims led some officials at the time of the murders to propose that the killer possessed anatomical or surgical knowledge.[3]

Newspapers, whose circulation had been growing during this era,[4] bestowed widespread and enduring notoriety on the killer owing to the savagery of the attacks and the failure of the police to capture the murderer, sometimes missing him at the crime scenes by mere minutes.[5][6]

Because the killer's identity has never been confirmed, the legends surrounding the murders have become a combination of genuine historical research, folklore and pseudohistory. Over the years, many authors, historians, and amateur detectives have proposed theories regarding the identity (or identities) of the killer and his victims.

During the mid-1800s, England experienced a rapid influx of primarily Irish immigrants, swelling the populations of both the largely poor English countryside and England's major cities. From 1882, Jewish refugees escaping the pogroms in Tsarist Russia and eastern Europe added to the overcrowding and the already worsening work and housing conditions.[5] London, and in particular the East End and the civil parish of Whitechapel, became increasingly overcrowded resulting in the development of a massive economic underclass.[7] This endemic poverty drove many women to prostitution. In October 1888 the London Metropolitan Police estimated that there were 1,200 prostitutes "of very low class" resident in Whitechapel and about sixty-two brothels.[8] The economic problems were accompanied by a steady rise in social tensions. Between 1886 and 1889 demonstrations by the hungry and unemployed were a regular feature of London policing.[5]

The majority of murders, and those most often attributed to "Jack the Ripper", all occurred in the latter half of 1888, though the series of brutal killings in Whitechapel persisted at least until 1891. A number of the murders entailed extremely gruesome acts, such as mutilation and evisceration, which were widely reported in the media. Rumours that the murders were connected intensified in September and October, when a series of extremely disturbing letters were received by various media outlets and Scotland Yard, purporting to take responsibility for some or all of the murders. One letter, received by George Lusk of the Whitechapel Vigilance Committee, included a preserved human kidney. Owing in large part to the extraordinarily brutal character of the murders, and to media treatment of the events, the public increasingly came to believe in a single serial killer terrorizing the residents of Whitechapel, nicknamed "Jack the Ripper" after the signature on a postcard received by the Central News Agency. Although the investigation was unable to conclusively connect the later killings to the murders of 1888, the legend of Jack the Ripper solidified.

Murder sites - Osborn Street (Emma Elizabeth Smith), George Yard (Martha Tabram), Durward Street (Mary Ann Nichols), Hanbury Street (Annie Chapman), Berner Street (Elizabeth Stride), Mitre Square(Catherine Eddowes), Dorset Street (Mary Jane Kelly).

Murder sites - Osborn Street (Emma Elizabeth Smith), George Yard (Martha Tabram), Durward Street (Mary Ann Nichols), Hanbury Street (Annie Chapman), Berner Street (Elizabeth Stride), Mitre Square(Catherine Eddowes), Dorset Street (Mary Jane Kelly).

All White Woman attacked

  • Mary Ann Nichols (maiden name Mary Ann Walker, nicknamed "Polly"), born c. 26 August 1845, and killed on Friday, 31 August 1888. Nichols' body was discovered by a man called Charles Cross at about 3:40 in the morning on the ground in front of a gated stable entrance in Buck's Row (since renamed Durward Street), a back street in Whitechapel two hundred yards from the London Hospital. The throat was deeply severed by two cuts, and about the lower part of the abdomen there was a deep and jagged wound partially ripping it open. There were also several incisions running across the abdomen, and three or four similar cuts on the right side caused by the same knife used violently and downwards. Nichols was 43 years old at the time of her death, but was described as looking some years younger than her age.
  • Annie Chapman (maiden name Eliza Ann Smith, nicknamed "Dark Annie"), born c. September 1841 and killed on Saturday, 8 September 1888. Chapman's body was discovered about 6:00 in the morning lying on the ground near a doorway in the back yard of 29 Hanbury Street, Spitalfields. The throat was, as in the case of Mary Ann Nichols, severed by two cuts, one deeper than the other. The abdomen was ripped entirely open and the womb had been removed. Chapman was forty-seven years old, in poor health and destitute at the time of her death.
  • Elizabeth Stride (maiden name Elisabeth Gustafsdotter, nicknamed "Long Liz"), born c. 27 November 1843 in Sweden, and killed on Sunday, 30 September 1888. Stride's body was discovered close to 1:00 in the morning, lying on the ground in Dutfield's Yard, off Berner Street (since renamed Henriques Street) in Whitechapel. There was one clear-cut incision on the neck. The cause of death was massive blood loss from the nearly severed main artery on the left side. The cut through the tissues on the right side was more superficial, and tapered off below the right jaw. The fact that there also were no mutilations made to the abdomen has left some uncertainty as to the identity of Elizabeth's murderer.
  • Catherine Eddowes (used the aliases "Kate Conway" and "Mary Ann Kelly," from the surnames of her two common-law husbands Thomas Conway and John Kelly), born c. 14 April 1842, and killed on Sunday, 30 September 1888, on the same day as the previous victim, Elizabeth Stride. She was forty-six years old when she died. Her body was found in Mitre Square, in the City of London. The throat was, as in the former two cases, severed by two cuts; the abdomen ripped open by a long, deep and jagged wound. The left kidney and the major part of the womb had been abstracted. Eddowes was 46 years old when she died.
  • Mary Jane Kelly (called herself "Marie Jeanette Kelly" after a trip to Paris, nicknamed "Ginger"), reportedly born c. 1863 in either the city of Limerick or County Limerick, Munster, Ireland and killed on Friday, 9 November 1888. She was about twenty-five years old when she was killed. Kelly's gruesomely mutilated body was discovered shortly after 10:45 a.m. lying on the bed in the single room where she lived at 13 Miller's Court, off Dorset Street, Spitalfields. The throat had been severed down to the spine, and the abdomen had been virtually emptied of its organs. The heart was missing. Kelly is thought to have been about 25 years old at the time of her death. The location of the crime is now a service road for offices and an NCP car park.[10]
Wanted poster - issued by the police during the 'autumn of terror' 1888.
Wanted poster - issued by the police during the 'autumn of terror' 1888.

The authority of this list rests on a number of authors' opinions, but historically the idea has been based upon the 1894 notes of Sir Melville Macnaghten, Chief Constable of the Metropolitan Police Service Criminal Investigation Department.[5] Macnaghten did not join the force until the year after the murders, and his memorandum, which came to light in 1959, has been found to contain serious errors of fact about possible suspects. There is considerable disagreement as to the value of Macnaghten's assessment of the number of victims. Some researchers have even posited that the series may not have been the work of a single murderer, but of an unknown number of killers acting independently. Authors Stewart P. Evans and Donald Rumbelow argue that the "canonical five" is a "Ripper myth" and that the probable number of victims could range between three (Nichols, Chapman and Eddowes) and six (the previous three plus Stride, Kelly and Martha Tabram) or even more. Macnaghten's opinion of which crimes were committed by the same killer was not shared by other investigating officers, such as Inspector Frederick Abberline.[11]

Except for Stride (whose attack may have been interrupted), mutilations of the "canonical five" victims became continuously more severe as the series of murders proceeded. Nichols and Stride were not missing any organs, but Chapman's uterus was taken, and Eddowes had her uterus and a kidney carried away and her face mutilated. While only Kelly's heart was missing from her crime scene, many of her internal organs were removed and left in her room.

The "canonical five" murders were generally perpetrated in the dark of night, on or close to a weekend, in a secluded site to which the public could gain access, and on a pattern of dates either at the end of a month or a week or so after. Yet every case differed from this pattern in some manner. Besides the differences already mentioned, Eddowes was the only victim killed within the City of London, though close to the boundary between the City and the metropolis. Nichols was the only victim to be found on an open street, albeit a dark and deserted one. Many sources state that Chapman was killed after the sun had started to rise, though that was not the opinion of the police or the doctors who examined the body.[12] Kelly's murder ended a six-week period of inactivity for the murderer. (A week elapsed between the Nichols and Chapman murders, and three between Chapman and the "double event.")

The large number of horrific attacks against women during this era adds some uncertainty as to exactly how many victims were killed by the same man. Most experts point to deep throat slashes, mutilations to the victim's abdomen and genital area, removal of internal organs and progressive facial mutilations as the distinctive features of Jack the Ripper's modus operandi.

Other victims in the Whitechapel murder file

Six other Whitechapel murders were investigated by the Metropolitan Police at the time, two of which occurred before the "canonical five" and four after. Some of these have been attributed, by certain figures involved in the investigation or by later authors, to Jack the Ripper.

These two murders occurred before the "canonical five":

  • Emma Elizabeth Smith, born c. 1843, was attacked on Osborn Street, Whitechapel 3 April 1888, and a blunt object was inserted into her vagina. According to Dr. G.H. Hillier, attending surgeon at the London Hospital, the injuries indicated use of great force, causing a rupture of the peritoneum and other internal organs, and the penetration of the peritoneum, producing peritonitis, was in his opinion the cause of death.[13] Emma Smith survived the attack and managed to walk back to her lodging house with the injuries. Friends brought her to a hospital where she told police that she was attacked by two or three men, one of whom was a teenager. She fell into a coma and died on 5 April 1888. [11]
  • Martha Tabram (name sometimes misspelled as Tabran; used the alias Emma Turner; maiden name Martha White), born c. 7 May 1849, and killed on 7 August 1888. She had a total of 39 stab wounds. Of the non-canonical Whitechapel murders, Tabram is named most often as another possible Ripper victim, owing to the evident lack of obvious motive, the geographical and periodic proximity to the canonical attacks, and the remarkable savagery of the attack. The main difficulty with including Tabram is that the killer used a somewhat different modus operandi (stabbing, rather than slashing the throat and then cutting), but it is now accepted that a killer's modus operandi can change, sometimes quite dramatically. Her body was found at George Yard Buildings, George Yard, Whitechapel.[11]

These four murders happened after the "canonical five":

  • Rose Mylett (true name probably Catherine Mylett, but was also known as Catherine Millett, Elizabeth "Drunken Lizzie" Davis, "Fair" Alice Downey, or simply "Fair Clara"), born c. 1862 and died on 20 December 1888. She was reportedly strangled "by a cord drawn tightly round the neck," though some investigators believed that she had accidentally suffocated herself on the collar of her dress while in a drunken stupor. Her body was found in Clarke's Yard, High Street, Poplar.
    The discovery of the Pinchin Street torso on 10 September 1889 prompted renewed speculation as to the identity of Jack the Ripper: cover of the 21 September 1889, issue of Puck magazine, by cartoonist Tom Merry.
    The discovery of the Pinchin Street torso on 10 September 1889 prompted renewed speculation as to the identity of Jack the Ripper: cover of the 21 September 1889, issue of Puck magazine, by cartoonist Tom Merry.
  • Alice McKenzie (nicknamed "Clay Pipe" Alice and sometimes used the alias Alice Bryant), a prostitute, born c. 1849 and killed on 17 July 1889. She reportedly died from "severance of the left carotid artery," but several minor bruises and cuts were found on the body. Her body was found in Castle Alley, Whitechapel. Police Commissioner James Monro initially believed this to be a Ripper murder and one of the pathologists examining the body, Doctor Bond, agreed, though later writers have been more circumspect. Evans and Rumbelow suggest that the unknown murderer tried to make it look like a Ripper killing to deflect suspicion from himself.[11]
  • "The Pinchin Street Torso" - a headless and legless torso of a woman found under a railway arch in Pinchin Street, Whitechapel on 10 September 1889. The mutilations were similar to the body which was the subject of the "The Whitehall Mystery," though in this case the hands were not severed. It seems probable that the murder had been committed elsewhere and that parts of the dismembered body were dumped at the crime scene.[11] Speculation, at the time, that the remains were of Lydia Hart, a prostitute who had recently disappeared, was disproved when she was soon located in a local infirmary - where she was receiving medical treatment to cure the after effects of a "bit of a spree." The identity of the victim was never established. "The Whitehall Mystery" and "The Pinchin Street Murder" have been suggested to be part of a series of murders, called the "Thames Mysteries" or "Embankment Murders", committed by a single serial killer, dubbed the "Torso Killer."[14][15] Whether Jack the Ripper and the "Torso Killer" were the same person or separate serial killers active in the same area has long been debated.[16] The Pinchin Street murder prompted a revival of interest in the Ripper - manifested in an illustration from "Puck" showing the Ripper, from behind, looking in a mirror at alternate reflections embodying current speculation as to whom he might be - a doctor, a cleric, a woman, a Jew, a bandit or a policeman. [11]
  • Frances Coles (also known as Frances Coleman, Frances Hawkins and nicknamed "Carrotty Nell"), born c. 1865 and killed on 13 February 1891. Minor wounds on the back of the head suggest that she was thrown violently to the ground before her throat was cut. Otherwise there were no mutilations to the body. Her body was found under a railway arch at Swallow Gardens, Whitechapel. A man named James Thomas Sadler, seen earlier with her, was arrested by the police and charged with her murder and was briefly thought to be the Ripper himself. However he was discharged from court due to lack of evidence on 3 March 1891. After this eleventh and last "Whitechapel Murder" the case was closed.[11]

Writing on the wall

After the murders of Elizabeth Stride and Catherine Eddowes during the night of 30 September, police searched the area near the crime scenes in an effort to locate a suspect, witnesses or evidence. At about 3:00 a.m., Constable Alfred Long discovered a bloodstained piece of an apron in the stairwell of a tenement on Goulston Street. The cloth was later confirmed as being a part of the apron worn by Catherine Eddowes. There was writing in white chalk on the wall (or, in some accounts, the door jamb[11]) above where the apron was found. Long reported that it read:

"The Juwes are the men that will not be blamed for nothing."

The writing is referred to by a number of authors as the "Goulston Street Graffito".[19][4][23] Detective Daniel Halse (City of London Police), arriving a short time later, took down the following version: "The Juwes are not the men that Will be Blamed for nothing." A 'copy' (according with Long's version) of the message was taken down and attached to a report from Chief Commissioner Sir Charles Warren to the Home Office. Police Superintendent Thomas Arnold visited the scene and saw the writing. Later, in his report of 6 November to the Home Office, he claimed, that with the strong feeling against the Jews already existing, the message might have become the means of causing a riot:

"I beg to report that on the morning of the 30th of September, last my attention was called to some writing on the wall of the entrance to some dwellings No. 108 Goulston Street, Whitechapel which consisted of the following words: 'The Juews are not [the word 'not' being deleted] the men that will not be blamed for nothing,' and knowing in consequence of suspicion having fallen upon a Jew named John Pizer alias 'Leather Apron,' having committed a murder in Hanbury Street a short time previously, a strong feeling existed against the Jews generally, and as the building upon which the writing was found was situated in the midst of a locality inhabited principally by that sect, I was apprehensive that if the writing were left it would be the means of causing a riot and therefore considered it desirable that it should be removed having in view the fact that it was in such a position that it would have been rubbed by persons passing in & out of the building."[24]

Since the Nichols murder, rumours had been circulating in the East End that the killings were the work of a Jew dubbed "Leather Apron." Religious tensions were already high, and there had already been many near-riots. Arnold ordered a man to be standing by with a sponge to erase the writing, while he consulted Metropolitan Police Commissioner Sir Charles Warren. Covering it in order to allow time for a photographer to arrive was considered, but Arnold and Warren (who personally attended the scene) considered this to be too dangerous, and Warren later stated he "considered it desirable to obliterate the writing at once."


In the autumn of 1888, a homicidal maniac prowled the gaslit streets of London's Whitechapel district, slaughtering six prostitutes in an increasingly gruesome and bloody manner.

His deadly spree culminated with raving madness in the murder of Mary Jane Kelly, whom the killer virtually dissected in her shabby room in Miller's Court, heaping her body parts all around the room and taking away her sexual organs with him. After this, the killer disappeared into the London fog forever, but he left behind a name which has fascinated and terrified down through the ages--the name of the first recorded serial killer in the modern sense of the term. The name of Jack the Ripper.

His identity may have been accidentally discovered now. And ser-prise, ser-prise, Sergeant Carter--he may have been a Jew.

Jack the Ripper
Is It Possible, Jack the Ripper Was a Polish Jew Named Aaron Kosminsky?

Kosminski Family - Emigration from Russia

Aaron Kosminski was born in Russia in 1864 or 1865. Records show that Aaron's two sisters, Matilda and Betsy, and their families left Russia circa 1881, and then stayed briefly in Germany, before finally settling in London either later in 1881 or in 1882. This is established by the birth records of the children of Morris Lubnowski and his wife Matilda (Aaron's sister): Joseph, the oldest child, was born in Poland in 1880; Bertha was born in Germany in 1881; Annie (b. 1884) and Jane (b. 1888) were both born in London. The children of Woolf Abrahams and Betsy (nee Kosminski, Aaron's other sister) Abrahams were both born in London: Rebecca in 1882, and Matilda in 1890.

Other Suspects that could be Jews too

John Pizer

John Pizer

John Pizer (1850-1897)

Pizer was a Polish Jew

Michael Ostrog

Michael Ostrog

Michael Ostrog (1833-1904?)

Michael Ostrog was a Russian-born, professional con man.

Seweryn Kłosowski

Severin Antonovich Kłosowski (alias George Chapman -- no relation to victim Annie Chapman) (December 14, 1865-April 7, 1903)

He was born Seweryn Kłosowski in Poland,

Carl Feigenbaum

Carl Feigenbaum was arrested in 1894 in New York for cutting a woman's throat. After his execution his lawyer claimed that Feigenbaum had admitted to having a hatred of women and a desire to kill and mutilate them. The lawyer further stated that he believed Feigenbaum was Jack the Ripper. This theory gained some press coverage at the time but was disputed by the lawyer's partner, and the idea was not pursued for more than a century. Author Trevor Marriott, a former British police murder squad detective, argues in the second edition of his book, Jack The Ripper - The 21st Century Investigation, that Feigenbaum was in Whitechapel at the time of the Ripper murders and also that he was responsible for other murders in the United States and Germany between 1891 and 1894.

David Cohen

David Cohen (1865-1889)

A Polish Jew whose incarceration at Colney Hatch asylum roughly coincided with the end of the murders. Described as violently antisocial, the poor East End local has been suggested as a suspect by author and Ripperologist Martin Fido in his book The Crimes, Detection and Death of Jack the Ripper (1987). Fido claims that the name 'David Cohen' was used at the time to refer to immigrant Jews who either could not be positively identified or whose names were too difficult for police to spell, in the same fashion that 'John Doe' is used in the United States today. This has been disputed by other authors. Fido speculated that Cohen's true identity was Nathan Kaminsky, a bootmaker living in Whitechapel who had been treated at one time for syphilis and who allegedly vanished at the same time that Cohen was admitted. Fido and others believe that police officials confused the name Kaminsky with Kosminski, resulting in the wrong man coming under suspicion (see Aaron Kosminski above). While at the asylum, Cohen exhibited violent, destructive tendencies that would today likely be linked to schizophrenia, and had to be restrained. He died at the asylum in October 1889. In his book The Cases That Haunt Us, former FBI criminal profiler John Douglas, has asserted that behavioural clues gathered from the murders as well as linguistic hints from the "From Hell" letter (the only one he considers to be authentic) all point to Cohen, "or someone very much like him."

Joseph Silver

Main article: Joseph Silver

In 2007 South African historian Charles van Onselen claimed, in the book The Fox and The Flies: The World of Joseph Silver, Racketeer and Psychopath, that Joseph Silver, also known as Joseph Lis, a Polish Jew, was Jack the Ripper.[11]Critics note, among other things, that van Onselen provides no evidence that Silver was ever in London during the time of the murders, and that the accusation is based entirely upon speculation. Van Onselen has responded by saying that the number of circumstances involved should make Silver a suspect.


Jack The Ripper Jewish

Jack the Ripper, the notorious serial killer who terrorized London over a century ago, has been identified as a Polish Jew, Aaron Kosminski, a resident of East London. The lead investigator's private notes on the investigation were released. In them, the investigator notes that Kosminski was positively identified by a witness, but the witness refused to give testimony, in part, it seems, because both Kosminski and the witness were Jewish.

1 comment:

Anonymous said...

Research isn't about copying everything that is already well known and hence well established. Your plagiarism is appalling.