We of European, or Aryan, descent have the longest and the greatest cultural heritage of any culture. Yet today, our unique customs, our unique cultural ethos, or soul, are understood and appreciated only by a minority of Aryans.
It is an unfortunate fact of our times that the majority of Aryans are more familiar with the culture of other races than they are with their own. Few Aryans know what our unique Aryan customs are, as even fewer possess the knowledge to defend and champion Aryan culture over and above the culture of other peoples
These things, however, are not surprising given the anti-Aryan bias that exists in our present 'multi-cultural' societies. The societies we Aryans now live in are, without exception, un-Aryan - just as the way of life of these societies is for the most part anti-Aryan. The way of life, and 'culture' of our times is based on abstract, materialistic, unnatural ideas and it is fundamentally detrimental to the health, welfare and future of Aryans.
If our unique culture is to survive, and prosper, again - if our noble and civilizing values are to once again create noble Aryan societies - then Aryans must come to now and value their own culture, as they must be prepared to champion and defend that culture, and their own heritage and customs. This collection of essays aims to provide Aryans with some of the knowledge, understanding and insight which are necessary for them to uphold and champion Aryan culture and Aryan values.
As a famous man once said: "Roman history, along general lines, is and will remain the best teacher, not only for our own time but also for the future. And the ideal of ancient Greek culture should be preserved for us in all its marvellous beauty. The differences between the various [Aryan] peoples should not prevent us from recognizing the community of race which unites them on a higher level. The conflict of our times is one that is being waged around great objectives: for a great culture is fighting for its existence and this great culture is the product of thousands of years of historical development, with the ancient Greeks as well as we Germans forming part of it." (Adolf Hitler: Mein Kampf, II, II.)
Our unique Aryan culture - extending from the early civilization of ancient Greece described by Homer in The Iliad and The Odyssey to the present-day - is fundamentally a warrior culture. We Aryans are warriors by nature and by instinct - or, more correctly, as Sophocles, another ancient Greek said, we are "thinking warriors". We possess an instinct to strive, to explore, to conquer, and to know. One of the things which marks our culture is the combination of restless driving, conquering warrior energy with a heroic defiance and a desire to know. These things express our nature, our soul, our ethos, as Aryans, and they have led us to create civilization after civilization, Empire after Empire and invention after invention. It is our great creative energy which produced this present civilization of ours, as it is this energy which still maintains this civilization to this day. The essence, the core, of our unique ethos and thus our culture - that which above anything else expresses and explains our nature, as Aryans - is our warrior instinct and heritage.
Our cultural heritage is a great treasure, for the stories, legends and heroic tales that make up its inner core tell us 'who we are' and what our unique Destiny, as Aryans is. The tales of valour, of the deeds of the great Aryan warriors of the past - the stories of the great Aryan battles from the siege of Troy to the Battle of Berlin - enable us to understand ourselves, as they can show us what we need to do in order to live healthy and fulfilling lives.
We should be so familiar with these tales, these stories and these deeds, than we can recite them from memory. They should inspire us to do similar or greater deeds, as we should hand-on to the next generation of Aryans these same inspiring tales, stories and deeds. We do not need, and should scorn and reject, the legends, tales, stories, myths and religions of any and every other race, for they are not part of our culture, and can only weaken us, as Aryans, and make us unhealthy.
For over a thousand years young Aryans have been nurtured on foreign, Jewish, stories - mythical and often boastful tales about a foreign people and their rather strange 'god' as related in what we know as the Bible. For over a thousand years, these tales, and the unhealthy theology and un-warrior like morality they have generated, have mesmerized and controlled the lives of generation after generation of Aryans.
In effect, Aryans have been uprooted from their own culture, and been deprived of their heritage and birthright. Another people, with its strange culture and history, was upheld as the 'ideal' for Aryan children to follow - and these children often knew more about Jewish history than they did about their own Aryan history. Instead of learning about the fighting spirit and valour of Achilles at Troy, they learnt about Samson and his hair. Instead of learning about and trying to emulate the great warrior deeds of an Alexander or a Caesar, they learnt about and were told to try and emulate the suffering of a Jew in Palestine who was reported to be the son of the Jewish god. Instead of taking The Iliad and The Odyssey as manuals or handbooks of Aryan living, they were taught to look to Bible
Over the last few decades, things have become even worse for Aryans, for now we have stories from what is called the Jewish 'holocaust' to enlighten us and guide us, as we also have the culture of other peoples to learn from. And our children are taught that their own warrior culture is somehow barbaric, 'imperialist' and 'racist'.
The result of all this is and has been generation after generation of Aryans who are rootless and who possess no understanding or even knowledge of their own unique culture, and who thus are unaware of their own identity. Further, many of our own people show a dislike for their own culture and a preference for other cultures. Indeed, things are now so bad for our race, that Aryan children are compelled, by the System that has been created, to learn in School and in Colleges, about other cultures as they are brainwashed into believing their own heritage to be often an unworthy one. And when parts of our heritage are taught, it is taught as something 'historical', as dead. It is never taught as something living - as something to be added to and as something which can and should inspire them to want to emulate the great deeds of great Aryans which such a heritage remembers and celebrates.
Our present societies are totally un-Aryan, as they are full of Aryans who have rejected their own culture or are indifferent to it and the noble Aryan values which form part of that culture. The stark truth of our times is that every other culture is valued, as the peoples of those cultures are often encouraged to identify with their own culture, while Aryan culture is at best ignored and at worst suppressed.
Furthermore, in most Aryan countries Aryan values and the Aryan way of life are impossible due to repressive laws which have outlawed Aryan customs.
To be free and healthy, people need to have a sense of identity - a meaning and a purpose to their lives. This purpose and meaning - this identity - arises from the culture of their ancestors. Our own Aryan identity arises from our warrior culture.
We who are Aryan need to strive to live and die like Aryans - that is, like noble warriors. To live any other way is unhealthy, and unnatural for the majority of Aryans. Today, our societies are full of 'office workers', of 'social workers', of people staring at computer screens, of ''business people', of people trying to sell material goods, and people doing dreary, soul-destroying work for some weekly or monthly pittance.
These people have the horizons, the dreams which this rotten, anti-warrior society has given them - and they have for the most part forgotten how to dream great dreams of discovery, of conquest, of glory and everlasting fame. As a result, they are only half-alive - or often even less than that. Having set their horizons so low, having settled for so little in life, they obtain only what is lowly and so little. These people have settled for the artificial, material or alien 'heritage' and anti-Aryan 'culture' which has been given to them and which they are allowed. They have seldom if ever felt their warrior Aryan blood stirring in their veins. They have seldom if ever felt that great surge of defiance, of glory and of freedom which motivated many if not all of their ancestors at some time. Instead, they bend their heads again, accept their servitude to an anti-Aryan materialistic System, and get on with their toil and with dreaming such dreams as this System has given them and which it allows them to have.
We Aryans must not only re-discover our own warrior culture, but we must seek by our own deeds to add to that culture. We must return our ancestral warrior blood, and learn again that the most important thing, for an Aryan, is to do deeds of honour and glory - to live, and if necessary die, as a warrior, striving for glory. We once were, and can be again, fierce, tough, and noble warriors. We once were, and can be again, a proud and free people, joyfully living life to the full.
We must learn to be warriors again as the warrior ideal must once again be upheld as the ideal for every Aryan man to strive to follow. If we do not do this, then we deserve the future of ruin, misfortune, slavery and extinction which will assuredly arise.
I Aryan Customs
Aryan customs are what distinguish an Aryan society from a non-Aryan society. Such customs express the ethos, or soul, of Aryan peoples and thus are an essential part of Aryan culture. They represent an attempt to make real the natural and healthy instincts of Aryans, and in the past such customs have formed the basis for civilized Aryan societies. Indeed, it is these customs which have created such civilized societies, just as the striving to maintain such customs (with such customs often being unwritten codes of conduct) was the means whereby civilization itself was maintained.
These customs are natural and healthy for Aryans - that is, an Aryan who strives to uphold Aryan customs lives a more healthy, more beneficial and more fulfilling life than an Aryan who does not uphold them. An Aryan upholding such customs is a cultured, civilized, person, just as society which upholds such customs is a cultured, civilized society which is in harmony with Nature. In essence, Aryan customs express the noble, rational, freedom-loving and warrior nature of the most excellent or best Aryan individuals, as well as the Aryan instinct for 'fair-play'.
Of course, in an Aryan society (such as the Achaean - or ancient Greek - society described by Homer in The Odyssey) there are more customs than those uniquely Aryan ones which will be detailed here. These other customs, such as hospitality and courtesy toward travelling strangers, were common to most warrior societies. Here, however, we are concerned with those customs which distinguish Aryans, which enable the creation of an Aryan society and which thus express the unique ethos of Aryan peoples. Most of these Aryan customs derive from the instinctive feeling the best Aryan individuals possess for honour and fairness, and many of them depend on the swearing of oaths, such an oath being taken either "on one's honour" or "before the gods".
The fundamental Aryan customs are:
(1) The right to possess and bear weapons and to use those weapons in self-defence.
(2) The right to protect oneself, one's family and kin by using force if necessary - including using lethal force.
(3)The obligation to be loyal to those one has sworn an oath of loyalty to.
(4) The obligation to tell the truth, once having sworn an oath to do so.
(5) Never to break an oath, once having sworn one.
(6) The acceptance of the right to 'trial by combat' to prove one is innocent of an accusation.
(7) Accepting that any person accused of anything had the right to defend themselves, in public, and that those making the accusation or laying a charge had to make that accusation in public before the accused for that accusation to be seriously considered.
(8) Accepting that anyone found guilty of some offence, including killing someone else, could, as their sole punishment, be exiled or outlawed.
(9) Accepting that those found guilty of some offence, such as killing another person, could, as their sole punishment, have to compensate the victims family in goods or in money. (This compensation was called Wergeld in Germanic and Anglo-Saxon societies, and by the ancient Greeks.)
(10) Accepting that disputes between individuals, and between rival or disputing factions, could be settled through single combat, or a fight, between those individuals or between two champions, each such champion representing one of those opposing factions, with each person or each faction accepting that right was on the side of the victor of such a combat or fight.
(11) Accepting that everyone had the right to challenge the authority of someone, or those in authority, and that this challenge should be made through single combat between the challenger and the person whose authority is so challenged, with the person defeated graciously accepting the authority of the victor in such a combat.
Such customs as these were, of course, ideals. But what is important is that such ideals existed, and were upheld as the standard by which personal and social conduct was judged, and by which public affairs were conducted. Once these customs were no longer upheld, or no longer seen as desirable, for whatever reason, the society once upholding them ceased to be noble and ceased to be Aryan. It ceased to be truely free and ceased to be fair. This change usually occurred when warriors - combat hardened men - ceased to lead such a society and ceased to occupy positions of authority and respect within that society. The un-Aryan society which resulted from this decline of standards was usually influenced and led by those lacking combat experience.
These customs should be used to judge all types of society, particularly the ones that Aryans live in today. Judged by such Aryan standards as these, it is easy to see that all modern societies which Aryans live in are fundamentally un-Aryan - all such societies are thus ignoble, unfair and uncivilized, since Aryan customs, taken together, and such Aryan customs alone, represent what is noble, fair and civilized. All modern societies in which Aryans live are basically anti-Aryan and tyrannical - an expression of everything the best or most excellent Aryan individuals loathe and detest. Such customs enable us, as Aryans, to reject what is not-Aryan, as they enable us to understand and appreciate Aryan culture itself.
II The Tyranny of Social Laws
A real tyranny has been created in this country, and other once Aryan countries, by anti-Aryan social laws - that is, by laws designed to create a particular type of society. These social laws have effectively 'socially engineered' the society we have today - as other social laws have been introduced, by successive governments, to outlaw, to suppress, any and all opposition to this socially engineered society.
There should be a distinction made between the two fundamental types of laws - 'moral' laws, and those 'social' laws which a particular government introduce or have introduced to create or maintain a particular type of society.
What needs to be understood is that moral laws - such as those dealing with such things as murder, stealing, fraud, rape and so on - are totally different from social laws which are basically designed to change people's attitudes and behaviour, and make them conform, on pain of imprisonment, to a particular anti-Aryan political dogma. Just because a law has been introduced by a particular government, and just because the Police Force and the Courts enforce that law by arresting and imprisoning those found guilty of contravening that law, does not mean that such a law is morally right or just. In fact, the majority of laws passed in recent years are social laws which are unjust and politically based. They have been designed, and are enforced, to create a certain conformity of opinion, and a conformity of thought, with all dissent being outlawed.
A real tyranny has been created, for the most part silently, and with the majority of people unaware of how their basic freedom has been taken away by such social legislation. Aryans are being forced to conform to a particular anti-Aryan political dogma - and this dogma is supported by all the major political parties, as this dogma has been adopted and followed by all the governments, whether of the political 'left' or the 'right', for the past four decades. In brief, there has been no difference between successive governments except on minor, unimportant issues - they have all been concerned with creating and maintaining, with socially engineering, a particular type of anti-Aryan society. They have all been gradually and silently creating a real tyranny.
What, then, is this anti-Aryan political dogma which all political parties and all governments adhere to? It is basically the dogma of a supra-national materialism - an eradication of the rights, customs, spirituality, way of life and culture of the Aryan majority. This Aryan majority is now expected to act, behave and live in a certain un-Aryan way, according to rules which social laws have created, and anyone who does not do so - who refuses to accept the eradication of their rights, customs, spirituality, culture and way of life - is liable to arrest and imprisonment.
Furthermore, successive governments have given the Police more and more powers to enforce these social laws and stamp out any dissent. Thus, any dissident - anyone behaving and acting like a true, noble, Aryan - can be the subject of a Stalinist-type 'dawn raid' with the Police smashing their way into the home of that dissident, rifling through and confiscating any possessions, literature or books that dissident may possess, and able to take that dissident away 'for questioning'.
Quite often, such a dissident will find themselves arrested and charged with contravening some social law or other, and be thrown into prison. Under the socially engineered, anti-Aryan materialistic society which has been created, the Aryan majority has to accept the destruction of the Aryan way of life, Aryan customs, Aryan rights and Aryan spirituality. In effect, the Aryan majority are being forced to live in an un-Aryan way, in an un-healthy, materialistic, tyrannical society which has outlawed everything which Aryans believe to be just and right.
Every year, more social laws are introduced, as the tyrannical System which has been created becomes ever more repressive, ever more determined to stamp out any dissent and ever more determined to destroy Aryan rights, customs, spirituality, culture and the Aryan way of life. The tyrannical System is determined to do this, because it knows that any one upholding these rights, and customs, and anyone who desires to live in an Aryan way, is a threat to the existence of this socially engineered tyranny and thus a threat to the anti-Aryan aims of this tyranny.
What is the basis of this new tyranny? It is the materialism of an international capitalism which views people as consumers and Nature as a commodity to be exploited for profit. It is the ethos of the 'grey society' where everyone is levelled down to a dishonourable pursuit of self-indulgence, pleasure and personal happiness, and where there is no personal honour: people can be bought, if the price is right, or at least be persuaded to do things, if provided with sufficient material rewards. And if some people cannot be bought or so persuaded willingly, they can be brainwashed through advertising or clever political and social campaigns.
Those behind this new tyranny - the international financiers and their political lackeys - want and need the majority of people to be docile and to pursue material or pleasurable aims, or aims which do not conflict with the ethos of the grey society. Those behind this tyranny see real culture - based upon personal honour and a respect for Nature - as a real danger, for real culture breeds honourable people who respect Nature and who value things other than profit and pleasure.
III To Die or Not to Die: Warrior Culture and Honour
A true warrior prizes honour even above their own life. That is, they are prepared, if necessary, to die rather than to submit or be dishonoured. They are prepared to stand by their principles, by what they believe in, even if this means their own death. This noble warrior principle of Death Before Dishonour is what, in the past, has enabled us to create civilizations and Empires. Those who are prepared to live and die by honour are better individuals than those who are not. They possess nobility of character; they possess the soul or spirit of a true warrior.
It is neglect of personal honour, and the willingness of men to put their own lives before honour, that has led us into the dire cultural situation we face today. The truth is that the majority of Aryan men today value their selfish, self-indulgent materialistic lives before honour. They desire to live, whatever the cost - even if they have to act dishonourably, submit, endure oppression, or be insulted.
Personal honour is worth dying for; indeed, personal honour is the one of the few things worth dying for. Honour makes the man. What makes a person a true Aryan warrior is honour. A warrior is someone who strives, by their own way of life, to implement, or make real, the ideal of excellence of individual character and the ideal of excellence for their own culture. And the most practical way such an ideal of excellence can be implemented is by that person upholding and championing honour. An honourable person always does their noble duty, as they are always loyal to those they have sworn loyalty to.
It does not matter where one dies, or in what manner one dies - it only matters that one dies honourably, with one's honour intact. The world today has largely lost, and largely ignores, the ethos, or spirit of the warrior - which, of course, is why it is such a sick, unhealthy place full of cowardly individuals. Until the present era - the reign of the capitalist-financiers and the triumph of their unnatural, abstract social ideas - the world belonged to strong men, to warriors. What mattered was the courage, the strength, the endurance, the honour, of such men. No one, and no abstract 'law' or 'Police force' had any authority over such men. They were truely free.
Today, we are ruled by abstract, remote, impersonal anti-Aryan and un-warrior like laws made by characterless politicians and enforced by some spineless bureaucrat of a Police officer for the benefit of the tame un-warrior like majority. Today, we are forced or expected to toil away for life to earn a pittance and provide a home for ourselves and our family, whereas we should be rewarded for fighting or able to forage abroad for booty and for wealth.
We who are aware of our warrior culture and heritage, and we alone, keep alive the wisdom and the ethos of the Aryan warrior - the essential toughness and fighting spirit of the honourable Aryan. We and we alone keep alive the natural and healthy values of manhood and the spiritual essence of a civilized way of life. This way of life was evident in the great and strong Aryan heroes of the past to whom war was a way of life. These strong men upheld valour in battle as the mark and making of a man, as they distrusted those who talked too much or too cleverly. Such heroes became immortal by their deeds, and are remembered to this day: battle-hardened Odysseus and the valiant red-haired Menelaus, who fought together at the siege of Troy; Leonidas, of Sparta, fighting to the death against the Persian hordes.....
We are striving to create a world where warrior values are once again respected and upheld.
On the individual level we can make our own lives an example by striving to live and if necessary die by honour. What others say or believe about us is irrelevant, for we know this modern society for what it is - a society full of characterless and tame men and women following the commands of their capitalist masters. I am reminded of the story of the young Japanese man in the Second World War who, understanding the warrior spirit of the Samurai, volunteered to be a Kamikaze pilot. His request was refused on the grounds that he was married, with three young children, and had a responsibility toward his family. But his wife also understood the Samurai spirit and what an honour it was for someone to die in such a way, and so she drowned her children and then herself, thus enabling her husband to fight and die a hero, which he did. Who understands this spirit today? Who is moved to tears by this story because they know without words what such a deed means? Who - except we warriors - would wish to volunteer as he did, and accept, as a true warrior, the willing sacrifice made by his wife? The disease of decadence, the soft weakness of character it creates, is now so far advanced that the majority of even our own people on hearing such a story would say something like: "How awful! They and he died in vain..."
But such a death is never in vain, and never a waste, because what is important is not what such a death or such a dying achieves or does not achieve in short-term practical results, but the manner of death itself. For by such a dying the person or persons become heroes, and Immortal - with their spirit living on. Such heroes preserve, and hand-on to future generations, the essence of nobility itself; they preserve, and hand-on to future generations, that and that alone which makes us more than animals and which raises us up toward the gods. They and they alone keep alive the inspiration of the divine and that silent, wordless, often tearful reverence without which we are not human, but sub-human. To die in such a way is a beautiful thing indeed.
Of course, no healthy person desires death. But when there is a possibility, through circumstances, of dying in such a way, the honourable person has to make a choice. They can do their duty, and so possibly give up their life, or they can refuse, and live as a coward. The highest honour is to willingly choose to do one's duty even if - or particularly if - there is a chance of death.
A warrior society is a society where this is not only understood but where such an opportunity to so act heroically in the face of death exists, with those who so make the heroic choice honoured and revered whether or not they live or die. Compared to such a society, our present society is disgusting and ignoble and full of disgusting, self-indulgent cowards.
A Brief Guide to Aryan Origins and History
The term Aryan is now used to describe the White, or Caucasian, peoples of the world. These people can be sub-divided into various groups, including Nordic, Mediterranean, Slavs and Alpine. All of these groups evolved, over hundreds of thousands of years, from the basic Aryan race which existed in Europe at least half a million years ago.
It is a commonly believed but incorrect myth - propagated by Marxist social anthropologists to undermine and destroy Aryan culture - that all the various races on this planet of ours have a common ancestor in Africa. According to this now fashionable dogma - which has become one of the foundation stones of the materialist temple of the grey society - the change from 'ape to man', from hominid to Homo Sapiens, occurred once in Africa, from where these primitive men spread out to colonize the world, adapting to the climates of the places they settled in, and thus developing different physical characteristics, such as skin colour.
However, this notion of one such change, in one place, is not only absurd, it is also contrary to the evidence which exists. The truth is that the change from 'ape to primitive man' occurred in many places of the world at different times. What happened was this. On the ancient earth, around one to two million years ago, several different groups of ape-men, or hominids, were in existence, having themselves evolved in different ways and at different times from apes. One group of such ape-men existed in Africa; another in Asia; and another in what is now Europe (which includes the Caucasus and what is now 'the Middle East'). There were probably other groups, as well. The change from ape-man to modern man occurred in Europe probably around one to one and a half million years ago. This gave rise to the first true 'men' - to the first Homo Sapiens. After this first change, another group evolved in Europe, thus giving, in Europe, two different types or races. The first type was the ancestor of the Aryan tribes of the present day; the second type was what has become known as Neanderthal man. The Neanderthals are supposed to have existed around half to a quarter of a million years ago, and to have gradually become extinct - although it is more probable that they were gradually assimilated. One example of an early Aryan was found at Swamscombe, in Kent, and this early Aryan probably lived around a quarter of a million to half a million years ago.
Contrary to the dogmatic propaganda of Marxist anthropologists, the cultural differences which have resulted from this separate evolutionary development are fundamental. There are differences of nature, or character, as well as intellectual differences. These differences have arisen because of long periods of evolution and represent Nature in evolution: the creation of diversity and difference. They are fundamental because they represent our connection, as individuals, to Nature herself - a means whereby we can live balanced, healthy lives and evolve still further in harmony with Nature.
For tens of thousands of years - from about a quarter of a million years ago - the early Aryans wandered throughout Europe, Russia and the Middle East, living as nomadic hunters. During this time, they discovered fire, made weapons of flint, and stone, and used tools made of ivory, horn and bone. They dressed themselves in animal skins, and undoubtedly made primitive tents from such skins. They learned how to speak, and devised a primitive system of symbols to represent some objects. Some of these people lived in caves, which they occupied for part of the year as they followed herds of the animals they hunted.
By about 40,000 or 50,000 years ago, these early peoples had probably domesticated some wild animals, such as the ancestors of modern hunting dogs. They had acquired the intelligence, the skill, and the co-operation, to produce beautiful, and quite accurate, cave-paintings, such as those found at Font-de-Gaume, in modern France.
By about 15,000 to 20,000 years ago, fairly settled communities of early Aryans existed, often around the fringes of large lakes, where fishing, with nets, and hooks, would have been undertaken, and wooden dwellings constructed. Dugout canoes had been invented, and some animals, such as cattle, domesticated, as well as an early form of agriculture undertaken, with crops sown and harvested. Family life was quite sophisticated, with woven clothes, and personal jewellery, worn.
Around 10,000 years ago, our early Aryan ancestors learned how to work metals; they mined iron ore, and smelted it to produce iron tools and weapons. During this Iron age, the horse was tamed, and the wheel invented, and a primitive system of writing created, carved on wood and horn.
The pace of change increased dramatically around 6,000 years ago, when the first civilization was created. This was an ordered, stable, large community capable of producing on a regular basis, by agriculture and hunting, the food needed to sustain a large group of people and enable them to have ample time and energy left to do other, cultural, or religious, things. This community, or civilization, depended also on an organized, stable and far-reaching, system of trade - and on specialization within the community, with craftsmen, warriors, traders, farmers, and hunters. This civilization was not in Egypt, or even in Sumeria - it was in what is now modern-day Britain, and was centred in that area of ancient Albion which contained the ancient monument of Stonehenge. Here, early astronomy began. That is, the beginnings of science, of reason, of understanding the world and the cosmos in a reasoned way. The early Greeks knew of this civilization, and called its people 'the hyberborians'. These people were of a North European tribe, and the ancient Greeks considered this hyperborean civilization to be the home of their god Apollo. It should be noted that during most of the life of this civilization, the climate of Albion was much warmer than it is now, with less cloud and less rainfall.
This civilization lasted for nearly two thousand years. As it declined and decayed, another civilization emerged, in the fertile crescent around the Tigris and Euphrates rivers, also created by Aryan peoples. This was to become the great civilization of Sumeria. From this civilization, the Egyptian civilization was developed and maintained for nearly a thousand years.
During the decline of the Sumerian civilization - probably around 3,000 years ago - a great wave of migration took place among North European tribes, probably as a result of the great climatic change that enveloped northern Europe at the time, and which reduced the temperatures, and brought more cloud and rain.
Most of this migration was eastward - through what is now Iran, Afghanistan, and India, and on toward China. North Europeans arrived in China, bringing with them with wheel and tamed horses (they used chariots to travel). Recent finds in China have unearthed some of the bodies of these ancient North European migrants.However, some of this great migration was directed southward, with North Europeans arriving in Greece and the Aegean islands. These people became known as Achaeans, and to them belonged the great Greek heroes celebrated in the epic stories of Homer's Iliad and Odyssey - the heroic Chieftain Agamemnon; the valiant red-haired Menelaus; and Odysseus, famed for his courage and his cunning. It was their ancestors who built the great civilization of Greece. And it is with the civilization of Greece that our surviving written Aryan history begins.